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The egg matures, the sperm matures
For fertilization, you need a healthy egg and a sperm that will have the ability to fertilize it. Physiology is simple and inexorable. The process of transforming the oocyte into a ripe and ready for fertilization egg takes at least three months. They also need the same amount of sperm cells to grow properly.
The first three months that can be called trimester zero have a specific impact on what happens to the body of a woman and a man and how they prepare for fertilization. It is a period in which it is worth taking care of yourself in a special way. If you're trying to get a baby, this is the right time to switch on folic acid supplementation.
What affects the conception of a child?
This question was tried to answer by British scientists who examined two thousand women for this purpose. They took into account the following facts: drinking alcohol, smoking, overweight, age (over 35 years for women and over 45 years for men) and consuming a large amount of coffee or other drinks with a high caffeine content.
What did they manage to determine? Namely, that the pairs that together obtained in the above list more than minus four points, they had to apply for the child seven times longer than couples who did not have this load. In most cases, it took them more than a year to get pregnant (less than 40% of couples managed to get pregnant within a year).
Unfortunately, fertility already affects even two adverse factors (for example, if a woman is overweight and a man is more than 45 years old), which means that couples with such a low load need two and a half times more time to get pregnant than couples who do not have these restrictions.
There are also positive conclusions from this research. It turned out that 83% of people with a fertile lifestyle have managed to conceive a child within a year of starting efforts.
Scientists have no doubt. Age has the most to say about trying for a child. It does not matter if you are a woman or a man, the more you are old, the greater the risk that after starting your efforts, we will encounter a problem in conceiving a child and reporting pregnancy. And just as important, the theory applies to both natural conception and aided by medical technology.
With age, both sperm and eggs lose quality. Their number is also decreasing. However, not only. The older the partners are, the higher the risk of miscarriages, endangered pregnancies and birth defects. Therefore, from the point of view of biology: pregnancy is younger than older age. In addition, the greater the number of candles on the cake, the greater the impact of external factors on pregnancy. In the case of a 23-year-old woman, often partying, drinking a lot, eating poorly and not exercising much, pregnancy usually isn't a big problem. However, when we change this age by rearranging the order of the digits or add another ten to them, the reality begins to look completely different.
According to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), a woman's chances of conceiving in a given cycle are 20% for women under 30 and only 5% for women over 40.
It also affects conception man's age. Studies have shown that when a man reaches the age of 35, the pregnancy rate decreases by 10%, and when he exceeds 45 years, by another 20%. And it doesn't matter for the woman's age. Man's age, according to studies, also affects the frequency of miscarriages. In every third pair, in which a man is 45 years old or more, fertilization ended in miscarriage.
All of the above is true. However, there is another trend that shows other worrying changes: reduced fertility, which is not only explained by the phenomenon of age. Every year, not only women over 35 have problems getting pregnant, but also younger. Therefore, this tendency cannot be explained only by the fact that most couples decide to have a child much later than it was several dozen years ago.
About 12% of infertility problems are due to the weight of the woman. Half of them are underweight and half are overweight. A man's weight also affects the fertility of a couple. If the weight problem concerns both partners, the risk of not getting pregnant within a year of starting efforts is three times higher than for couples whose weight remains normal. Therefore, the bad news is that even a 10% deviation from normal weight can affect fertility.
Some more research? Long-term observations of women have shown that overweight women needed twice as long to become pregnant, and in underweight women this period lengthened up to eight times.
Underweight and overweight increases risk of miscarriage. It also increases the risk of complications during pregnancy.
At biology level, it looks like this. Fertility disorders are affected too a large amount of estrogenwhich is produced in fat cells. In overweight women, this in turn disturbs ovulation. The result is often irregular cycles and incomplete ovulation. Women with too much weight also have another problem: their body secretes too much androgens and insulin which adversely affect the possibility of fertilization.
The reverse is true for underweight women. Having too little fat, they are not able to produce enough estrogen, which means that the cycle is irregular and often simply does not ovulate during it.
Now a few words about men. Excessive weight affects the amount of sperm in the semen, seriously reducing the possibility of fertilization. In such men, the problem may also be a small amount of testosterone, which turns into estrogen too quickly. Some researchers almost think that too much fat around the testicles raises the temperature too much and damages the sperm.
When writing about the plan to increase the chances of conception, it is worth mentioning the dream. Sleep not only affects the functioning of the mind, but also fertility. And here information that can give a brighter light on big problems with modern fertility: 70% of Americans do not sleep. The situation looks probably similar in the case of Poles.
Deficiencies in quantity and quality have a direct impact on mood and immunity system. Sleep deprivation also affects hormonal balance, can affect the menstrual cycle, inhibiting the ovulation process (which was observed especially in nurses and stewardess - often working at night without sleeping).
Remember, although each of us has a different demand for sleep, usually six hours is not enough best if we spend at least eight hours a day in sleep. This is especially true for women seeking a child.
The fertility of toxic substances such as pesticides, lead, mercury and heavy metals, tobacco smoke and cadmium has also been proven. The list is definitely longer. Toxins enter our body not only with food, but also with air, they penetrate the skin. Their impact is so great that scientists have been forced to redefine the 'regularity' of sperm results. Today, good results are considered to be those that decades ago were considered worrying.
So much has been said that you can have enough. It is known that smoking is harmful. However, not everyone is aware that the negative effects of smoking (one and both partners) on the chance of becoming pregnant have been proven.
What does it look like in numbers? Smoking reduces by one-third the woman's chance of having a child. In addition, reaching for cigarettes is also associated with an increased risk of miscarriage. Writing at the level of physiology: nicotine is the most threatening, which worsens the flow of blood in the uterus and in the placenta, which often leads to problems with the implantation of the egg in the uterus and promotes miscarriages. In men, smoking reduces the number of spermatozoa and slows down their movements. Smoking reduces the chance of becoming pregnant naturally and when using reproductive techniques.
Caffeine and coffee
Caffeine reduces uterine blood flow, which can block egg nesting. Additional activities include: increasing stress and anxiety levels. Too much caffeine can increase the risk of blood clots and miscarriage.
Research in the Netherlands proves that already four cups of coffee a day reduce the chance of fertilization by 25%. Some studies even suggest that coffee may be responsible for reduced sperm counts and an increased risk of miscarriages. However, it should be honestly noted that not all studies have confirmed the harmful effects of coffee.
In most cases, the safe dose is 90 mg per day, which is the usual cup of classic coffee, two cups of tea, three cups of green tea.
Remember: caffeine is also found in chocolate and cola.
Studies on the effects of alcohol on fertility are ambiguous. However, among women applying for a child, there is often an opinion that if they want to have offspring in the near future, it is best to limit or completely eliminate alcohol so that it does not adversely affect the newly developing child.
Alcohol in men has an undeniable effect on fertility. In the case of women, opinions are divided, while men must reckon with the fact that the abuse of alcoholic beverages can lead to a decrease in the quality of sperm and testosterone levels and a decrease in libido. Drinking alcohol, as studies show, also reduces the rate of successful treatments using reproductive techniques.
The number and quality of spermatozoa and the development of an egg and an embryo may be affected by too high a temperature.
Therefore, if you are an amateur of hot baths, before you take a shower, or even more so in a bath, cool the water and apply the rule not to sit in it for too long. Just a few minutes is enough for the testicles to overheat. Following this lead, they can be risky heated blankets and even heated seats. If we are at risk, they can cause a miscarriage.